[Review paper]
Progress in off-shell science in analyzing light–matter interactions for creating dressed photons

Motoichi Ohtsu



This article reviews the recent progress in theoretical studies on mechanisms of creating dressed photons (DPs) by focusing on the light–matter interactions in a nanometer-sized space. First, the intrinsic nature of the DP is reviewed, and fifteen experimentally observed phenomena are described. Second, it is pointed out that the conventional on-shell scientific method has intrinsic problems in describing these interactions. Finally, the off-shell scientific method, which can overcome these problems, is reviewed, and it is demonstrated that this method, relying on the Clebsch dual (CD) field, has succeeded in identifying the mechanism of creation of the DP, specifically: the spacelike CD field (Majorana fermion (MF) field) interacts with the timelike components of the 4-momenta field, and the MF field subsequently creates a timelike particle and antiparticle forming a pair. This pair is annihilated promptly because of its non-propagating nature. However, a non-propagating electromagnetic field remains in the interacting system, which is the very field of the DP.

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Research Origin for Dressed Photon,3-13-19 Moriya-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-0022 Japan